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Caytoniales and angiosperms diverged from a common ancestor with Bennettitales in the Lower Triassic according to Cascales-Miñana et al. Why assume that flowering plants constitute a single clade first appearing 256 MYA without discussing Mathews (2009), Mathews et al. Discerning Fingerprints of Developmental Regulation: This chapter of the essay considers experimental approaches and paleobiological evidence drawn from the research perspective of evo-devo, which is necessary to identify lineages of seed plants involved in the origin and evolution of flowering plants. D., and Mark's help at the delnortea beds is gratefully acknowledged. the [angiosperm] clade probably first appeared during Triassic times," which is a stratigraphically-perplexing Gordian Knot. The preceding statement is quoted from page 399 of David Grimaldi and Michael S. This challenging and daunting approach was facilitated by ready access to several world class research libraries at the University of California, Berkeley. The enigmatic Paleozoic plants Spermopteris and Phasmatocycas reconsidered. Doyle (1991, 2000), Frohlich and Parker (2000), Friedman and Floyd (2001), G. The evo-devo research perspective could help us decipher more than 400 million years of insect and seed plant evolution and the enigmatic origins of flowering plants and interacting Holometabola. (2014), and Tomescu (2016), among others, are useful in understanding the developmental systems of animals, fungi, and plants. Several neurosecretory hormones play an important part in mechanisms that regulate cell division and growth including insulin-like peptides (Drosophila insulin-like proteins [DILPs] and bombyxins), chitenase-derived imaginal disk factor proteins, the steroid hormone ecdysone, local autocrine and paracrine TFs, and brain neurosecretory prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) (Nijhout 2003). Evolutionary-development of arthropod- and plant organs and molecular tool kits is "highly dynamic in evolutionary time" involving the evolution of cis-acting promoters (page 83, Baum 1998). Reviews by Rothwell (1987), Arthur (2002), Meyerowitz (2002), Becker and Theißen (Figure 1, page 468, 2003), Niklas (2006), Rothwell et al. A key paper on the control of insect body size by Nijhout (2003) outlines the molecular mechanisms involving cis-acting TFs and hormones and environmental controls (nutrition and temperature) behind growth and cell division in hemimetabolous and holometabolous insects. Were insect and shrub coevolutionary compartments of the late Paleozoic hypoxic icehouse and later hot house, venues of the first angiosperms? This question among others is explored in this first of three essays on the origin of angiosperms. Long-branch attraction (LBA) continues to cloud molecular-phylogenetic studies of seed plants, including angiosperms (Lipeng Zeng et al. Evolutionary-development of early land plants was probably intertwined with regulatory changes in polycomb repressive 2 gene complexes and other stem cell factors as evidenced from studies of the extant model bryophyte Physcomitrella (Okano et al. Floyd and Bowman (2007) are the first workers to estimate the developmental tool kit of early land plants including Paleozoic seed plant homeotic genes potentially important in the later evolution and diversification of angiosperms and origin of the first flowers from bisexual cone axes sensu Melzer et al. The work by Floyd and Bowman (2007) focuses on a molecular-phylogenetic analysis of Chara (a green alga), Physcomitrella (a moss), Selaginella (a lycophyte), Arabidopsis (angiosperm malvid), Antirrhinum (angiosperm asterid), Oryza (angiosperm monocot), Populus (angiosperm fabid), Picea (gymnosperm conifer), and Pinus (among others). Certain aspects of coevolution of Mesozoic arthropods and seed plants that have a bearing on the origin and diversity of angiosperms are reviewed by Takhtajan (1969), Raven (1977), Thien et al. A review of plant homeobox genes and homeodomain proteins offers additional insight into critical elements of the land plant developmental tool kit (Mukherjee et al. Many developmental gene families and cis-acting TFs have been identified in land plants (Langdale 2008, Mukherjee et al. Could paleoecologists benefit by studying experimental, 3-D printed artificial constructs of shoots and protoflowers in theoretical morphospace? By measuring and scaling detached and shed foliar and cone- floral-organs, and by combining these data with studies of permineralizations, "fingerprints of developmental regulation" (quoted from page 723, Sanders et al.

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Taylor and Hickey (1992, 1996), Loconte (1996), and Krassilov (1997, 2002), among others. "The idea is that plants have a plastic and modular developmental system such that simple changes in regulatory genes need not lead to inviability but can generate novel, potentially favored phenotypes." The preceding quotation is from page 83 of D. "Ontogeny in land plants can be viewed as a complex, partly hierarchical, series of developmental processes, which together with their underlying genetic controls, provide the raw material for morphological innovation. The interface between development and ecology may be studied from such perspectives, among others (Enquist et al. "In theoretical morphospaces, the axes of the reduced space are determined by a small set of parameters of morphogenetic or other biological models, derived from theoretical considerations rather than from the organisms themselves" (page 841, Chartier et al. Scaling studies of reproductive short- (spur-) shoots of living Ginkgo are particularly revealing to plant morphologists (Christianson and 2009). Cessation of growth in holometabolous insects leading to a new moulting cycle is triggered by PTTH that initiates the ecdysone growth regulatory cascade.

(2014), have contributed to our knowledge of the origin and evolution of flowering plants. fossil-based, molecular, phylogenetic and paleobiogeographic studies) and current viewpoints about the explosive Cretaceous diversification of angiosperms. Further, problems associated with co-radiations of angiosperms and insects are brought to light by phylogenetics (T. 2007) suggesting that evolution of certain clades of late Mesozoic phytophagous ants, bees, beetles, butterflies, flies, and moths might be independent of the explosive origin and spread of eudicot orders and families (Labandeira 2014). Root Gorelick (2001) challenges the validity of a biotic coevolutionary hypothesis on the origin of flowering plants. Deciphering the ancestry of flowering plants and their paleoecologies probably requires an understanding of the paleontology of "fingerprints of developmental regulation" (quoted from page 723, Sanders et al.